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English - Ms Stonehill - South Africa: In-text citations

In-Text Citations / Internal Notes: also know as -- footnotes in text and parenthetical documentation

Below you will find some basic examples of how to create in-text citations.  For a complete list of more complicated examples (e.g., in text citations for sources with no author or page number), we recommend the Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) website "MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics." 

For a video tutorial on how to create in-text citations, scroll to the bottom of this page.

Your bibliography will provide your readers with a list of the resources you used in your research. Within your paper you can give specific credit to the pages you used in several ways. 

1. The most direct way is by using internal footnotes. 

          Leonardo da Vinci's masterpiece Mona Lisa has a smile that may be interpreted as "the echo of a momentary mood, and as a timeless, symbolic expression" (Janson 440).

This indicates the reference came from page 440 in a book by Janson

          Leonardo da Vinci created many works but his masterpiece Mona Lisa can be "described as the world's most famous painting" (Kemp 19:180).

This indicates the reference came from volume 19, page 180 in a work by Kemp. 

2. There are several indirect methods to identify the source of information: 

AUTHOR'S NAME IN TEXT: 

          Janson compares the portrait to other historical works (440-449).

This indicates the reference came from pages 440-449 in a book by Janson . 

          Kemp discusses the identity of the sitter (19:184).

This indicates the reference came from volume 19, page 184 in a work by Kemp. 

AUTHOR'S NAME IN REFERENCE: 

          Some comparisons have been made (Janson 440-449).

This indicates the reference came from pages 440-449 in a book by Janson. 

          The identity of the sitter has been suggested by many (Kemp 19:184).

This indicates the reference came from volume 19 page 184 in a work by Kemp. 

These indirect formats can be applied to other resources as well, including periodicals, websites, etc. 


In your bibliography the citations for the above in-text citations would look like this: 

   Janson, H.W. History of Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams. 1986. Print.

   Kemp, Martin. "Leonardo da Vinci." The Dictionary of Art. Ed. Jane Turner. New York: Grove, 2002. Print.

Video Tutorials: How to Create In-text Citations

Thanks to EasyBib & NoRedInk.com for creating the first tutorial video for in-text citations, and to Heather Hersey from the Lakeside School in Seattle, WA for creating the second video!

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