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WWII / Cold War

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History Databases

Upstander List

  1. Fred Korematsu - fought vs incarceration, took case to Supreme Court

  2. Gordon Hirabayashi - organized and defied orders, first SC case

  3. Minoru Yasui - used civil disobedience and legal challenge vs incarceration

  4. Kiyoshi Okamoto - incarcerated, fought against JA drafting

  5. James Omura -  editorialized against incarceration

  6. Wayne Collins - white lawyer who supported Japanese Americans

  7. Ralph Lazo - Mexican American who voluntarily went to camps

  8. Ina Sugihara - NOT interned, worked also with CORE

Holocaust Resistance: Jewish Americans and allies
(Information on all individuals below should be available at the link above)

  1. Rabbi Stephen Wise - leader against Holocaust, raised awareness

  2. Lois Gunden - rescued child refugees

  3. Varian Fry - journalist, aided escaping refugees

  4. Gilbert and Eleanor Kraus - saved 50 Jewish children before the war

  5. Martha and Waitstill Sharp - Unitarian aid workers, helped refugees

  6. Eleanor Roosevelt - worked in and out of govt (also fits in AA Civil Rights)

  7. Henry Morgenthau Jr. - cabinet member, pressured FDR

  1. Carlos Bulosan  - Filipino American author and labor organizer

  2. Dalip Singh Saund - activist and first Indian American in Congress

  3. Grace Lee Boggs - Chinese American writer and intersectional activist


  1. Hollywood 10 - directors and writers who denounced HUAC

  2. Edward R. Murrow - journalist who opposed McCarthy

  3. Joe Welch, Army-McCarthy hearings

    1. PBS American Experience )

  4. Margaret Chase Smith - first woman in House and Senate; defied McCarthy

  5. Anne and Carl Braden - white activists for civil rights, called to HUAC

  6. Frank Wilkinson - white civil rights activist, housing rights, HUAC defier

  7. Dashiell Hammett - white writer and activist, HUAC defier

  8. Pete Seeger - singer, testified at HUAC

  9. Arthur Miller - author, critic of HUAC (The Crucible)

  1. Asa Philip Randolph - union and Civil Rights activist, pressured FDR

  2. Thurgood Marshall - lawyer for the NAACP

  3. Josephine Baker - performer, Nazi resister, civil rights activist

  4. Paul Robeson - performer, activist (anti-Red Scare, too)

  5. James Farmer - founder of CORE

  1. Frank Kameny - fired from govt for being gay, fought in courts

  2. Harry Hay - Co-founder of the Mattachine Society

  3. Chuck Rowland - Co-founder of the Mattachine Society

  4. Bob Hull - Co-founder of the Mattachine Society

  5. Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon - Founders of the Daughters of Bilitis

  1. Charles Loeb (African-American reporter) - Exposed lie about atomic bomb

  2. Ritchie Boys - German/Austrian refugees who trained as intelligence agents during the war 

  3. Port Chicago 50 - a group of African-American sailors charged with mutiny for disobeying orders during World War II

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